GE3V17049 The Cultural Cold War

Class 3 Public Diplomacy in Western and Eastern Europe

1. TRUMAN AND EASTERN EUROPE

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO TRUMAN

 

1.2 TRUMAN AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE

2.EISENHOWER AND WESTERN EUROPE

2.1 TIME OF THE 1950s and 1960s

2.2 EISENHOWER REVISIONISM

2.3 EISENHOWER AND PROPAGANDA

2.4 UNITED STATES INFORMATION AGENCY

3.ATOMS FOR PEACE

4.SPACE RACE

4.1 INTRODUCING THE SPACE RACE

4.2. PROPAGANDA GAP: EUROPEAN ALLIES AND THE THIRD WORLD

 

4.3 “IDEOLOGICAL GAP”: AMERICAN MODEL

 

4.4. “MISSILE GAP”: MILITARY THREAT“Missile Gap”: Military Threat

 

4.5. CONCLUSION

5.CONCLUSION

Core Reading:

  • Cull, Ch 1 Truman, 22-80 (58pp)

  • Cull, Ch 2 Eisenhower, 81-133 (52pp)

  • ‘2. Intensifying the Offensive: Atomic Weapons, Strategic Uncertainty, and NSC 68 1950-1951’, Mitrovich, Gregory. Undermining the Kremlin: America’s Strategy to Subvert the Soviet Bloc, 1947-1956. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 2000, 47-82. (35pp)

  • Osgood, Kenneth A. “Form before Substance: Eisenhower’s Commitment to Psychological Warfare and Negotiations with the Enemy.” Diplomatic History 24, no. 3 (2000): 405–33. (28pp)

  • Outline of Class 3

  • You can print out the outline, the reading and use this module to familiarize yourself with the material while making notes on the outline. The assignment will focus on one particular way of understanding the United States and its public diplomacy.

How is U.S. public Diplomacy in East and West Europe different or the same?

Class Description

1. TRUMAN AND EASTERN EUROPE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

  • The origins of postwar public diplomacy are located within the Office of War Information

  - Cooperation was already established with the Psychological   Warfare Division

  • Origins: Office of Strategic Services which is the predecesor to the Central Information Agency (CIA)

  • Origins: Voice of America was created in 1942 and became a instrument for the Cold War battle for hearts and minds.

1.2 TRUMAN AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE

  • The Challenge of the Cold War: a new role for propaganda was developed. Propaganda became anti-soviet

  - Kennan and the X Telegram make the argument that the Soviet Union needs to be contained.

  - The most important strategic paper of the United States,NSC 68, made the connection between Containment and psychological War: “Nature of conflict about ideas”. The Cold War was explicitly viewed as a battle for hearts and minds.

 

  • Psychological Strategy Board, April 1951

  - The PSB was created with a focus on fighting the propaganda battle in Eastern Europe. Citizens behind the Iron Curtain were targeted with aggresive propaganda. 

  • Campaign of Truth

  - The Campaing of Truth was the main project of the PSB. Project TROY the most famous action. Balloons dropped pamphlets into Eastern Europe.

2. EISENHOWER AND WESTERN EUROPE

2.1 TIME OF THE 1950s and 1960s

The 1950s and 1960s are a time when public relations and the belief in psychological warfare took off. 

The historical context for the surge of propaganda and the increased belief in psychological warfare is the increased influence of psychology, the advertising industry and popular belief in brainwashing.

The difference between commercials in the 1950s and 1960s is surprising. Wheras commercials in the 1950s were informative, those of the 1960s sought to convey 'a symbol', 'a feeling', 'an idea' 

 

2.2 EISENHOWER REVISIONISM

Public Diplomacy concerns shaped Eisenhower's foreign policy at every turn. This insight was develeped by Kenneth Osgood, who explains his argument in this video.

Eisenhower Orthodox: believed Eisenhower was not very involved in policy-making.

 

Eisenhower Revisionism: believed Eisenhower tried to attain peace with the Soviets, but was thwarted by aides and Congress.

 

Power of public diplomacy, Osgoods argument: Eisenhower was not intersted in attaining peace with the Soviets. Peace proposals were a way to wage symoblic struggle with the Soviets.

2.3 EISENHOWER AND PROPAGANDA

•Eisenhower as a general in World War II developed his conviction that propaganda and psychological warfare were curcial in foreign affairs.

 

•C.D. Jackson was his psychological warfare adviser. He had experience at Time/Life.

 

•Nelson Rockefeller was also an important adviser who took his experience of cultural diplomacy towards Latin America into the administration.

 

•Public diplomacy not only targeted towards Eastern Europe. Eisenhower realised that Western Europe an the 'Free World' had to be united as wel. 

 

•NSC 162/2 – New Look: “the maintenance of morale” was crucial

2.4 UNITED STATES INFORMATION AGENCY

the U.S. main public diplomacy institution

  • Directors

- Theodore Cuyler Streibert (1953–1956)

-Arthur Larson (1956–1957)

-George Venable Allen (1957–1960)

-Edward R. Murrow (1961–1964)

  • USIA  was detached from the State Department

  - Raises the question: what is the role of cultural diplomacy?  “Certainly the relentless tightening of   information’s control over culture made it   seem that the game was already over   for   the culturalists.”

  • In the field the Public Affairs Officers were essential

  - They wrote USIS country plans and reports

  - They ran Information Centers and cultural centers   (public face of USIA)

3. ATOMS FOR PEACE

•Magic of Atomic Bombs

- Lake Chagnan, Kazachstan, 15 January 1965 was created by the explosion of an atomic bomb. People were encouraged to go swim in this lake.

•UN Speech Eisenhower, 8 December 1953

- Proposes an 'Atoms for Peace Programme', an internationla management of nuclear material. 

•Chance for Peace Address, 16 April 1953

•A real program, but with propaganda considerations

​- In this ways Eisenhower seeks to create win-win situations. If he gets his programme, the USSR will have to bring its nucelar material under international control, if the USSR refuses the USSR is seen as an agressive power.

4. SPACE RACE

4.1 INTRODUCING THE SPACE RACE

 

•4 October 1957 Sputnik launch

- With the launch of Sputnik the USSR takes the lead in the space race.

•3 November 1957 Sputnik II

- the USSR can really gain an advantage on the U.S.

•US response: Vanguard & Explorer I (Flopnik)

- the US speeds up existing space programme, but the rocket explodes, leading to a massive PR disaster.

4.2. PROPAGANDA GAP: EUROPEAN ALLIES AND THE THIRD WORLD

•USSR propaganda

  - Khrushchev was happy with the propaganda advantage that space gave him.

  - Peaceful coexistence (1956): Khruschev, like Eisenhower, realises the Cold War cannot be won through open warfare and argues that both systems have to compete to show the world who has a superior social model.

•US: total Cold War

  - Th Soviet threat of Sputnik really pushed the battle for hearts and minds into high gear. 

  - The U.S. denied time and time again that they were involved in a space race, since admitting they had also raced to go to space - and lost! - would lessen their position.

 

•Free World morale

  - MOST IMPORTANT: Because of the superior Soviet Space technology, doubts about U.S. leadership emerge  and Eisenhower realises he has to also invest in propaganda towards West-Europe, not only Eastern Europe.

 

•Developing World- Increase aid- Zambian space race

The space race also inspired the developing world. Nkoloso, a freedom fighter in Zambia, wanted to put an African Astronaut on the moon.

4.3 “IDEOLOGICAL GAP”: AMERICAN MODEL

•Doubts about U.S. Culture & U.S. leadership also emerge domestically and are translated into popular culture 

•Popular culture

  - FILM

  - Plan 9 outer space (1959)

  - TV

  - Jetsons (1962)

•Eisenhower invests in science and education to catch up with the Soviets

-National Defense Education Act (1958)

-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (1958)

4.4. “MISSILE GAP”: MILITARY THREAT

 

  • “Missile Gap”: Military Threat

  • Wernher von Braun

- Nazi scientist who developed missiles for the U.S.

  • Gaither Report (1958)

- The Gaither committee, named after its first chairman Rowan Gaither, was tasked by President Eisenhower with creating a strategy that would strengthen the US military defensive systems and better prepare the US for a nuclear attack. The result was the Gaither Report, a document that detailed the inadequacies of US technology, among other things, and called for an urgent strengthening of US missile technology and US offensive and defensive military capabilities​

 

5. CONCLUSION

Why did Sputnik cause so much panic? Because Sputnik represented the  confluence of many U.S. anexieties.

  1. Propaganda threat of the Soviet union increased (4.2)

  2. Superiority of American model questioned (4.3)

  3. Military threat increased (4.4)

  • Propaganda concerns shaped Eisenhower’s domestic and foreign policy at every turn

 

  • Reception is difficult to understand à effects of propaganda?

 

  • ‘Total’ aspect of the Cold War in the 1950s

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