GE3V17049 The Cultural Cold War

Class 6 The 1970s

1. INTRODUCTION

PART I

2. NIXON

3. CARTER

4. REAGAN

PART II

5. SEARCHING FOR A PUBLIC DIPLOMACY STRATEGY FOR THE 1970s

6. CONCLUSION

Class Description

1. INTRODUCTION

  • Little research on Public Diplomacy in the 1970s

  - explore what is possible

  • 1970s tumultueus time

  - Outgrowth of the 1960s – Anti   Vietnam protest

  - East LA Riots, January 31 1971 – Race   Wars

  - 1968 Turning point: Robert Kennedy   and MLK assassination

​PART I

2. NIXON

2.1 RISE TO POWER

 

2.2 FOREIGN POLICY

 

2.3 END OF NIXON

2.1 RISE TO POWER

•1970s

  - Time of crisis. Race riots and the economic downturn really create an atmosphere of crisis.

 

•Eisenhower

  - Nixon was Eisenhower's Vice President and already tried to become President, but was defeated by Kennedy.

  -  Nixon develops the 'Southern Strategy', which tries to get U.S. Southern votes by playing on Racist undertones.

  - Already under Eisenhower, as Vice President, Nixon was being accused of taking bribes. He gave a speech in which he argued he had only accepted a puppy he had been given. 

2.2 FOREIGN POLICY

•Vietnam

  - Nixon expands the war in Vietnam to Cambodia

- Alot of criticism by the peace movement in the U.S. which led to an even bigger perceptioin of crisis. 

Cfr. Nixon goes and visits protesters at the Lincoln Memorial.

 

•Mad Man Strategy: Nixon's Cold War approach was a 'Mad Man strategy', which had to always create the perception 

  - Role of public diplomacy in a strategy like that?

2.3 END OF NIXON

•Watergate Scandal

  - DNC taps, break in, 17 june 1972

 

•Saturday night massacre

  -  Attorney General Elliot   Richardson to fire independent special   prosecutor Archibald Cox; Nixon fires everyone in his ways.

 

•Resignation

  - Nixon did not want to hand over the tapes to hide he was directly involved in Watergate.

  - Ford pardons Nixon once he becomes president. Ford was Nixon's Vice President.

3. CARTER

2.1 RISE TO POWER

 

2.2 FOREIGN POLICY

 

2.3 END OF CARTER

2.1 RISE TO POWER

•Georgia

  - Peanut farmer in Georgia who becomes politically active.

  - Governor in Georgia, and acquires national fame.

•Energy crisis

  - He installs solar panels on White House. He is one of the first presidents to pay attention to 

2.2 FOREIGN POLICY

•Human Rights are the core foreign policy concern of Carter, who promises to be a different president, compared to Nixon.

•Rhodesia and Lancaster House Settlement. Carter actively negotiates in a crisis in Souther Africa between the British and African nationalists.

•SALT II and Soviet invastion in Afghanistan were major challenges to Carter's presidency

2.3 END OF CARTER

•Iran hostage Crisis

  - Shah overthrown by Khomeini

  -  Fifty-two American diplomats and   citizens were held hostage   for 444   days from November 4, 1979, to   January 20, 1981,

  

  - failed attempt to free hostages

•Carter foundation (guinea worm)

  - remembering Carter. Carter has become incredibly active through his foundation which buidls houses and does charity work.

4. REAGAN

4.1 RISE

4.2 FOREIGN POLICY

4.3 END

4.1 RISE

  • Crack cocaïne epidemic 1980s and 1990s

  - End of funding for  psychiatric care. Neoliberal reform by Reagan further adds to atmosphere of crisis.

  - ignoring AIDS epidemic. 

 

  • Movie Star, 69 years old

  - Screen Actors Guild Presidency (McCarthy)

  - B Films, The Bad Man (1941)

 

  • Assasination attempt, March 30, 1981 

  - nuclear codes?

4.2 FOREIGN POLICY

  • Iran-Contra Scandal, 1985-87

- Teflon President

 

  • Cold War confrontation but negotiation

  - “Evil Empire” Speech

  - Letters to Gorb & Tear Down this Wall (1987)

 

  • Weapons

  - SDI (Strategic Defence Force SDI)

  - INF Treaty (limits short and mid-range   missiles)

4.3 END

  • 68% approval rating

  • Conservative icon (fiscal responsibility – Military spending?)

  • Legacy: Did he end the Cold War?

PART II

5. SEARCHING FOR A PUBLIC DIPLOMACY

  • Increasing shift to the Third World of the USIA. As the Cold War in Europe became less relevant, the USIA activities 

  • Less strategic coherence towards Europe. There were  many issues that needed to be addressed in the 1980s , prohibiting a coherent approach.

  • Crisis management via public diplomacy (Iran-Contra, Iran hostage crisis...)

6. CONCLUSION

•Ongoing shift to the Third World of USIA

•Unclear role for Public Diplomacy, Modernization was no longer the rationale in the 1970s and 1980s, PR was , but how you do you do PR if there is perpetual crisis?

•Movies reflect changing Cold War sensibilities in the 1980s. The increased aggresiveness makes PR difficult.

•Crisis management

This site was designed with the
.com
website builder. Create your website today.
Start Now